5. Across and Through
Across and Though can both be used for a movement from one side of an area to another.
1． Across is related to on, it suggests that the movement is on a surface.
The lake was frozen, so we walked across the ice.
My house is just across the street.
We shall swim across the Channel.
2． Through is related to in, you move through a threedimensional space, with things on all sides.
Light comes in through the window.
The train is running through the tunnel.
The exploring party made its way through the forest.
Note: Through is not used for a movement from one side to the other of something “long and thin” like a river.
She swam across the river. (Wrong: She swam through the river.)
Practice: Fill in the blanks with across or through:
1. They built a flyover _____ the road.
2. The sunlight was comingon _____ the window.
3. The two lines cut _____ each other.
4. A plane flew _____ the sky.
5. Tom walked quickly ____ the rice-fields.
(key: across, through across across through )
6.. About and On
What is the difference between “ a book about American history” and “a book on American hisory” ? On is used to suggest that a book, article, lecture ect. is serious or academic suitable for specialist. About is usual when the information given is more general, or the speaker or writer wants to be more casual or informal.
A textbook on Chinese history.
A book for children about
A lecture on economics
A talk about money
An article on British industrial problems
A discusion about strikes in
Practice: Fill in the blanks with on or about.
1.The scientist recently finished a thesis ______ modern physics.
2. The children are not interested in her talk ____ manners.
3. Are you going to listen to a serious lecture _____ philosophy or make a light coversation ______ popular music ?
( key: on , about, on about )
7. According to
When we use the phrase according to, we should be careful. Here are two common mistakes:
1. According to me, the price is too high.
2. Accoring to his opinion, the Chinese football team is going to win.
Analyse : 1. We say the first sentence is wrong because when we use according to , we actually want to say that our information comes from some other person, book…ect. not from ourselves.
According to John, the price is too high.
Accoring to the timetable, the train arrives 1:30.
2. Sentence 2. is not crrect, either, because according to is not generally used with words like view or opinion. We should say in the teacher’s view, or in his opinion…etc.
In my opinion, the Chinese football team is going to win.
In his view, the price is not so high
Practice: Translate the following into Chinese:
1. Please answer questions accoring to the text.
2. In our view, how many tickets shall we need ?
3. In our opinion, this work is not so difficult.
4. According to him, we will have a new English teacher next time.
8. Much too, and Too much
. 1. Much too.
As an adverb phrase, it canbe used to midifly adjectives and adverbs.
1). He is much too kind to me.
2). These books are much too expensive.
3). I got into a taxi and the driver started off at once and soon drove much too fast
2． Too much
1). As a noun phrase, it can be as the subject or an abject.
Where there is too much of it, the poisonous waste may do great harm to the things around us.
You have given me too much.
2). As an adverb phrase, it is used to modify intransitive verbs.
We have been walking too much in the hot sun.
Don’t speak too muh.
3). As an adjective phase, it is used as an attributive or a predicative.
He drank too much wine yesterday.
My friend is afraid the trip will be too much for you.
Practice: Fill in the blanks with much too or too much.
1. It’s ________ cold today.
2. Xiao Li smokes __________.
3. The work is _______ for a child.
4. He has bought me _____ to eat.
5. There is _____ noise.
6. ____ was happening all at once.
7. He got up ______ early today.
(Key: 1. much too, 2. too much 3. too much 4. too much
5.too much 6. Too much 7.much too )
9. No more and No longer
No more means never again . No longer means formerly but not now.
I will go there no more.
The ship was sunk at once stroke and was seen no moe.
The young man no longer lives here.
We shall wait no longer.
Note:1. From the above examples, we find that no longer can be put before a verb or after a verb, but no more only after a verb. So we can say:
It no longer exists. (or: It exists no longer.)
We saw him no more. (but not: We no more saw him.)
2. No more has more uses than No longer. It can be used as a noun, an adjective or an adverb, but No longer only as an adverb.
He has no more to say. （作名词）
I want no more wine. (作形容词)
3.Sometimes we can use no more instead of neither.
You did not come,no more did he.
You did not come, neither did he.
10. Foot and Inch
Foot, a measure of length, originally means part of your leg that you stand on. So a foot is the length of a man’s foot. A standard length should be formulated because the length of men’s feet varies. It was done by men’s feet varies. It was done by Germans in the sixteenth entury. It is said that sixteen men who were at church and came out first were asked tp stay. The Germans added up the length of each man’s left foot and then diveded it by sixteen. They got an average length of the feet. It is the standard length of foot -----30,48 centimetres.
Inch is the meaning of trumb in Dutch, which is the length of thumb. Of course, the length of thunbs varies, too. How did we have the standard length of inch ? In the fourteenth century, Edward II issued a decree to fix the length of inch. But it was not theaverage length of thumbs. He selected three biggest grains of barley from a full cluster of barley ears and placed them one after another, and in this way got the length of today’s inch ----- 2.54 centimetres.
11. Have on, Be in, Wear, Put on and Dress
Have on, Be in and Wear are all used to express the state of having (cloths ) on the body.
1. Have (sth) on The object can placed after on or before it.
They had their best suits on for the opening ceremony
The boy has on a new cap.
2. Be in It can be followed by clothes or hats, and by the name of the color of the clothes as well.
He was in an army uniform.
The girl in red is his sister.
3.Wear The object is not only clothes or caps but also a watch,jewely, hair style and so on.
She was wearing a gold ring.
He wears his hair long.
4. Put on, Dress express the act of placing clothes on the body. Put on must be followed by sth.(clothes, hats,…ect). Dress must be followed by a person, it also can be used as an intransitive verb.
Take off your overcoat and put on your raincoat.
She put her hat and coat on.
We are going to dress our baby in new clothes.
Get up and dress quickly.
The boy is old enough to dress himself.
Note: Be dress in refers to the state of wearing clothes of stated color or type.
She was dressed in black.
The children are dressed in school uniforms。
12. So do I. I do so. So I do.
1. Pattern: So + aux..v. + noun. (pronoun)
In this pattern so is used in the meaning of also or in the same way. This is an affirmative inversion. If there is no auxiliary in the pattern, do ( does or did) is used.
He is happy and so is everybody else.
(It means: He is happy and everybody else is happy, too. )
Bill likes tennis, so does Tom.
(It means: Bill likes tennis and Tom likes tennis, too.)
2. I do so.
Here so is used as a substitute (替换) for a word, phrase or situation. It is used in place of an idea, expression ..ect, stated already, especially after hope, think, believe and say.
He hopes he will win and I hope so.
( That I hope so means that is what hope, or I hope just so.)
I told you so.
(It mean: that is what I told you, or I told you just so.)
3. Pattern: So +pron. +aux.v.
In the pattern, so is used to express agreement. If there is an auxiliary or link verb in the first verb, this auxiliary link verb is repeated, if there is no auxiliary, do (does) is used in the present tense and did in the past tense.
1). A: The students study hard.
B: So they do.
2). A: It was cold yesterday.
B: So it was.
Practice: Multiple Choice:
1. A: I have made up my mind.
A. So have I. B. I have so. C. so do I. D. So I have.
2. A: Are you going to play basketball this afternoon ?
A. So am I. B. I hope so. C. So I hope. D. So do I.
3. A: I went to the cinema yesterday.
B: Oh, did you ? _______________.
A. So went I B. I did so C. So I did D. So did I.
4. A: Father, you promised me!
B: Well, __________.
A. so did I B. I did so. C. so I did D: I hope so
5. She will learn French, ________.
A. so do I B. so shall I C. so I will D. I will so
(Key: 1.A. 2. B 3. D 4. C 5. B )
13. Other and Else
Both other and else mean 其他的 in Chinese, but they are used in different ways.
Otheralways coes before a noun ( other people, other cars) while else usually appears in the following structures:
1. Ater words which begin any-, every-. Some-, no-, and finish -body, -one, -thin, -where…
Would you like anything else ?
It is too crowded there, Let’s go somewhere else.
2. After who and what (but not which) and after where, how and why (but not usually when)
Who else will go ?
Where else have you been ?
3. With the words little ans not much.
Little else is known of that old man.
There isn’t much else to do now except pray.
Note: There is a possessive form else’s
You will have to borrow somebody else’s car. I am using mine.
Who else’s umbrella can this be ?
Within our ranks everybody regards anybody else’s difficulties as his own.
Practice: Translate the following into English:
1. Would you like anything else? What else would you like?
2. Little else remains to be done.
3. This is not your dictionary. It’s somebody else’s.
4. Besides these books, I’d like to read some other books.
14. On or In
Before parts of the bodu, we can use both the preposition On and In.
On is used with the names of most parts of the body surface.
She had blood on her forehead.
I kissed her on cheeks.
In is used with the softer and more “hollow” parts of the body surface.
I hit him on the jaw (ear, shoulder, nose, neck).
I hit him in the eye (mouth, rides, stomach).
Note: 1. We hit somebody in the face, but on is usually used for facial expressions.
There was an expression of happiness on his face.
2.In is used to talk about wounds, and for position inside the body.
He was wonded in the shoulder.
I’ve got a pain in my head.
Practice: Fill in the blanks with in or on..
1. The old man hit the robber _____ the head.
2. She came into the room happily with a smile ___ her face.
3. During the fight, a big stone hit him ____ the face.
4. The soldier was wounded ____ the back.
5. His girl friend tapped him ____ the shoulder.
6. He has a pain ____ the left leg.
7. 7. The big boy kicked him ___ the leg.
( Key: 1. on 2. on 3. in 4. in 5. on 6. in 7. on )
15. Much very
Both much and very can be used as an adverb, but there is much difference between them.
1. Much can modify comparative but very can not.
This stone is much heavier than that one.
You must work much harder.
She is much more beautiful than that girl.
2. When they are used to modify superlatives, much should be placed before the definite article while very should be placed after the definite article.
He is much the best student in the class.
This cake ought to be good, because I used the very best butter.
3. Much is used to modify passive participles, which are not fully adjective, while very is used to modify passive and present participles, which are true adjectives.
I was much surprised at hearing the news.
His face wore a very surprised expression.
I heard a very surprising news.
4. Much can modify a finite verb but very can not.
I don’t like it much. (or, I don’t much like it.)
It doesn’t much matter. (or, It doesn’t matter very much.)
5. Very can modify adverbs ans adjective, while much can only modify predicative adjective, such as “afraid,quickly, clever….ect”.
You came very quickly.
He is very clever, I can’t keep pace with him.
I am very much afraid that he will not succeed.
Practice: Fill in the blanks with very or much.
1. I met with a _____ interesting stranger in the street the other day.
2. Although he is ____ clever, I don’t like him ______.
3. He is _______ afraid of his father.
4. A black-and-white TV set is _____ cheaper than a clour one.
5. Tom passed the examination easily, for he is the ____ best student in the class.
(Key: 1. very 2. very, much 3. much 4, much 5. very )
15. Of or For
Of and for seem to be confusing to the beginning in the following.
It is kind of you to help us so much.
It is necessary for us to help each other.
The sentences both have it as the formal subject and the real subject appears at the end. The two
Subjects are the infinitives, both of which have their own logical subject; you and us. The only difference is that one is introduced by of,the other by for. Then are of and for interchangeable? The answer is No.If you study carefully, you will find some slight difference between them..
It is kind of you to help us so much.
Analyse: In this sentence, Kind can be regarded, in a logical sense, as the predicative of you, so sentence can be rewritten like this;
You are kind to help us so much.
In such a case, the logical subject of the infinitive in the sentence is introduced by of.
It is necessary for us to help each other.
Analyse: In this sentence, things are different. Necessary can’t be regarded as the predicative of you. So sentence can’t be written like this:
We are necessary to help each other.
This is a wrong sentence.The logical subject can only be introduced by for, not by of.
Practice: Now do the following exercises, and you will know the difference between of and for better.
1. It is not easy ____ us to master a language.
2. It is unwise _____ them to turn down the proposal.
3. It is not hard _____ a person to do a good deed.
4. It is impolite ____ a child to talk to an old man that way.
(Key: for, of, for, of )
16. Beat and Win
These two words may cause trouble when you use them, please remember; you win (or lose) a game, an argument, a bettle, a prize, some money…ect; but you beat (or are beaten by ) the person you are playing, arguing of fighting against. In other words you usually win something but beat somebody.
I usually win when we play.
The little boy won the prize at the contest.
I beat John at chess yesterday.
I was beaten by my girl friend at tennis.
Practice: Fill in the blanks with the proper forms of win or beat.
1. He ____his wife at tennis.
2. Who ____ the race. ?
3. If the war breaks out, no one will _____.
4. The soldiers fought very bravely and _____ the enemies at last.
5. I ____ the first prize at the competition.
( Key: 1. beat 2. won 3. win 4. beat 5. won )
16. Do the shopping and Go shopping
After the verb of both do and go, we can use an –ing form..
Can you do the shopping for me ?
Let’s go shopping this afternoon.
But the two sentences are different in meaning and in structure.
Do is often used with an –ing form when we want to talk about an activity that takes a certain time, or that is repeated (such as; jobs and hobbies). There is usually a determiner ( the , my, some, this, much…ect), before the –ing form.
I usually do most of my washing on Mondays.
I did a lot of running when I was younger.
Go is used with an –ing form when the expressions are mostly concerned with sport and physical recreation. Moreover, there are not determiners before –ing form.
Let’s go dancing next week.
Did you go swimming last Sunday
Common expressions of this kind are ; go boating. Go climbing, go fishing, go hunting, go riding. go shopping, go skiling,….ect.
Practice: Use go or do in the following sentences.
1. They often _____ fishing together.
2. This evening I think I’ll stay at home and ____ some reading.
3. I _____ a lot of shopping yesterday.
4. I _____ shopping yesterday.
(Key: go, do, did, went )
18. Golden rules for the use of articles
The correct use of the articles in one of the most difficult points in English grammar. If the rules for the use of articles seem too complicated, just remember these three.
1. Do not use the (with plural and uncountable nouns) to talk about thing in general.
Life is hard. (Not: The life is hard.)
2. Do not use singular countable nouns without articles.
The car ( A car ) is useful. (Not: Car is useful.)
3. Use a, an to say what people’s jobs are.
She is a teaher. (Not: She is teacher.)
Most mistakes with articles are made through breaking one of the three rules.
17. Be certain to do, Be certain of doing, Be sure to do, Be sure of doing
When we say that somebody is certain to do something, we mean that we believe he will do it.
If we say that he is certain of doing something, the meaning is not qite the same; we suggest that the person himself feels certain that he will do it, but that he could be wrong.
Sure is used in the same way.
Allen is certain to win, and her rival hasn’t got a chance.
It is sure to rain.
Before the game started, Allen felt certain of winning, but after the first five minutes, he began to lose confidence.
Practice: Choose the better answer;
1. It is ______. (sure to rain, sure of raining)
2. We can’t be ______ (certain to succeed, certain of succeeding ) before the experiment ends.
3. John is _______ (certain to come, certain of coming) soon as he peomised to..
(Key: 1. sure to rain 2. certain of succeeding, 3. certain to come 4. sure of getting.)
18. Before, In front of
In modern English, Before is not very often used as a preposition of place, we often use In front of instead.
He has put the desk in front of the window.
There’s a car parked just in front of our gate, and I can’t get out !
Before, however, can be used to refer to the place in the following cases:
1. Talking about the order in which thing come (or in lists..ect)
Your name comes before mine.
Those with babies got into the bus before the others.
2. To mean “in the presence of somebody”
The sudents stood ashamed before their teacher, for they hadn’t finished their homework.
3. In the expression “right before my eyes” .
He told a lie before my eyes.
When time is referred to, before is used instead of in front of.
He will arrive here before 8.
Before 1949, there was no school there.
Practice: Fill in the blanks with before or in front of.
1. Thousands of people have gathered at the airport _____ his arrival.
2. Don’t put that chair ___ my desk.
3. With tears in her eyes, she stood ____ him.
4. This just happened _____my very eyes !
19. Excuse me, Pardon and Sorry
In British English, Excuse me does not mean the same as Sorry. Excuse me is normally used “bore” we do or say something that could annoy somebody: Sorry is used “afterwards” to apologize. Excuse me is often used when we are going to disturb to interrupt somebody, or when want to attract somebody’s attention.
A: Excuse me, could I get past ?
B: Oh, sorry, did I step on your foot ?
Note: 1. Besides Sorry, we can also apologize by saying I beg you pardon .
2. In American English, Excuse me and Pardon me are often used for apologizing.
Sorry, I hope you haven’t been waiting long.
I beg you pardon, I didn’t realize this was your seat.
4. If we don’t hear or understand what people say, we usually say what? Or I beg your pardon? with a rising intonation.
A: See you on Tuesday.
A: See you on Tuesday.
Practice: Complete the following dialogues:
1. A: You are going deaf ?
B.I beg your pardon?
3. In American, if you want to apologize, you can say “Excuse me”
4. If you want to aske somebody the way to the library, you start with Excuse me.
20. Compare: adjective-ly
Many adjectives can be turned into adverbs by adding “ –ly”
The engine is very quiet. It runs very quietly.
He is a wonderful singer. He sings wonderfully.
But some words that end in-ly are adjectives, not adverbs.
Friendly, lovely, lonely, likely, ugly, deadly, cowardly, silly, …ect
These words can’t be used as adverbs.
He spoke to me in a very friendly way.
Her singing was lovely.
Other words that end in –ly can be either adjectives or adverbs. Such as daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, early,…ect.
A daily newspaper is published daily.
We get up early to catch an early train.
Practice: Correct mistakes, if there are any in the following sentences:
1. He spoke to me very friendly. (F)
He spoke to me in a friendly way.
2. Her yearly income is about 30,000 yuan. (T)
3. SSP coes out weekly (t)
4. She sang lovely (F) Her singing was lovely.
5. The old lady looks ugly. (T)
6. She talks silly .(F) She talks in a silly way.
21. Instead, Instead of , In place of, take the place of
1. Instead .
It is an adverb, used as an alternative or substitute.
He is tired, let me go instead.
If Harry is not well enough to go with you, take me instead.
Tom didn’t watch TV. He went to the cinema instead.
2. Instead of, In place of
Both are prepositional phrases, followed by a noun, pronoun, gerund or prepositional phrase. They are interchangeable.
Shall we have fish instead of meat today ?
He has been playing asll afternoon instead of getting on with his work.
We will have tea in the garden instead of in the house.
They went there on foot instead of by bus.
Nowadays plastics is used in place of wood or metal.
3. Take the place of
It means replace.
Nylon has taken the place of cotton in making some textiles.
Who will take the place of Mr. Johnson ?
Note: We can rewrite the sentence, using instead of in place of instead.
The water here is not good, so I’m drinking spring instead.
I’m drinking spring instead of water since the water here is not good.
22. Do you know the difference between Like or As ?
Both words are used to show comparisons. When we want to say that people, things, action or situationa are similar to each other, we can use as or like, depending on the grammar of the sentence.
It is a preposition, it is followed by a noun or a pronoun..
He ate like a horse.
My sister isn’t much like me.
It is a conjunction, it is followed by a clause, with a subject and verb.
The work is not so easy as you imagine.
Please state the facts as they are.
When in Roome.do as the Romans do.
Note: As can also be used with a noun alone, in the same way as like, but there is some defference in meaning.
He worked as a teacher. (He was a teacher.)
He worked like a teacher. (He worked very hard; but he was a free man.)
Let me speak to you as a father. ( I’m your father and I’m speaking to you as a father should)
Let me speak to you like a father. (I am not your father but I’m speaking in the way your father might).
23. worth and worthy
They can both mean deserving, meriting when they are used as predicative in a sentence. But their collocation is different.
1. Be worth
It is followed by a noun or a gerund which has a passive meaniong and can be modified by well. And also mean be of the value of
His suggestion is worth your consideration.
His suggestion is well worth considering.
It is worth considering his suggestion. (with introduvtory It as the subject)
The dictionary is worth 4 dollars.
It’s worth much more than I paid for.
It is followed by of with a noun or a passive gerund, and it can also be followed by an infinitive in passive voice (to be+p.p.).
His suggestion is worthy of consderation.
His suggestion is worthy to be considered.
Mr. Zhang is worthy of the research work.
The story-books are worthy of being read.
The museum is worthy of a visit.
What he did is worthy of being praised.
Note: 1).Worth is only a predicative adjective, while worthy can be used as an attributive, which stands before or behind a noun.
He is a worthy winner.
The scientist is a man worthy of the honour.
2).Worthwhile is an idiom, which means worth the time spent in doing it,..ect. It is usually followed by gerund.
It is worthwhile visiting the museum.
Practice: Compare the following sentences.
1. The Museum is worth visiting.
The Museum is worthy of being visited.
2. The story-books are worth reading
The story-books are worthyyof being read.
3. What he did in the battle is worth praising.
What he did in the battle is worthy of being praised.
24. Be afraid of, Be afraid to do, Be afraid that ---.
1.Be fraid of + noun. (pronoun)
The noun or pronoun indicates the thing which one fears.
She is afraid of dogs.
I’m not afraid of you.
2. Be afraid of +V-ing
The gerund shows what one is afraid may happen. And one is worried or anxious about the possible results.
She closed the door very quietly, as she was afraid of wakening the sleeper.
(That means that she did not wish to waken him but feared she might do so if she closed the door noisily.)
3.Be afraid to do…
The infiinitive specifies the thing that hear discourage one from doing. One dare not do sth. because of fear.
She is afraid to waken the sleeper.
(That means that she dare not waken him ecause she fears will be annoyed or angry.)
Tom is afraid to swim in the sea because he is afraid of drowing.
4. Be afraid that -----clause
1). That-clause shows what one is afraid may happen. And one is worried about the results.
I was afraid that I might hurt his feelings.
(That means that I was afraid of hurting his feelings).
2). “Polite”sorry for something that has happened or is likely to happen.
I’m afraid I’ve got bad news for you.
I’m afraid I can’t help you.
25. Meaning of “Never Mind”
Some students don’t know the meaning of Never mind, so they often make mistakes in their dialogue.
There is an example as follows:
A: May I use your bike, Wang wei ?
B: Of course. Here is the key to my bike.
A: Thank you.
B: Never mind.
1.Here students B. should say “Not at all” or “All right” instead of “Never mind”. Never mind means Don’t worry about it. It doesn’t matter, or Forget it.
2.You can say Never mind when someone makes an apology to you for giving you some trouble.
Here some examples:
1). A: I’m sorry to have kept you waiting
B: Never mind.
2). A: I’m sorry to stand in the way of you.
B: Never mind.
3.You can also say Never mind when someone cares about you.
A: What about your bike ?
B: Never mind that. I’ll take care of it.
26. No more than, Not more than
No more than 和Not more than 虽只有一词之差， 但其含义和用法却不相同。
1． 当二者表示两个人或两个事情的比较时， no more than 意思是“和。。。一样不。。。”它既否定前者，又否定后者。而not more than 则是“。。。不及。。”，“不比。。更。。”的意思。
1）。I am no more than tall than you.
2）。I am not more tall than you.
分析： 句1 含有否定意思，既“你”不高，“我”和你一样也不高。 句2 含有肯定意思，既“你长得很高”， 而“我”则不如“你”高， 但也含有“我也高”的内在意思。这个句子只是说明前者在程度上不如后者，但都是肯定的意思。又如：
This book is no more interesting than that one.
This book is not more interesting than that one.
2.当二者后接数词时，no more than =only表示“仅仅”。 Not more than = at the most 表示“至多”，“不超过”之意。如：
she is no more than five years old.
She is not more than five years old.
27. Need 的错例分析
Students often make mistakes in using the word “need” now let us discuss the following:
Wrong: He need study.
Right: He needs to study.
Wrong: He needn’t to attend this meeting.
Right: He doen’t need to attend this meeting.
Wrong: Need she to help ?
Right: Need she help ?
Right: Does she need to help ?
Wrong: This machine needs to repair.
Right: This machine needs repairing.
Right: This machine needs to be repaired.
分析：当need 后面接的动词是表示主语需要被怎么样时，need 后面应接动名词或被动的不定式。
Wrong: There is still so much time left, we didn’t need to hurry.
Right: There is still so much time left, we needn’t have hurried.